HIV-Positive: The First Questions After Diagnosis

HIV-Positive: The First Questions After Diagnosis

The diagnosis "HIV-positive" is accompanied by numerous concerns about one's own health and future. The general practitioner has answered some of the most frequently asked questions for you.

I have recently become HIV positive. Can I grow old with HIV infection?

The treatment of an HIV infection has changed completely over the past 15 years. In 1996 there was a revolutionary improvement in the treatment options.

With the introduction of a new group of substances (protease inhibitors) and the simultaneous combined administration of at least three substances (combination therapy, also ART/antiretroviral therapy) a lasting therapeutic success could be achieved. The life expectancy of HIV-positive people is therefore almost normal in countries where this therapy is available.

What do I have to imagine under a modern antiretroviral therapy?

In the first years after the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the mid-1990s, the lack of alternatives sometimes meant that serious side effects and a high number of tablets had to be accepted. In the meantime, however, more than two dozen different drugs have been approved and are in use.

From this selection, the doctor can select the substances best suited to the patient. He will not only consider possible side effects, but also his personal daily routine, such as sleeping and eating habits, possible already existing resistances or pre-existing conditions. As a rule, the patient swallows a few tablets once or twice a day - three or four times a day, often more than 20 tablets, are fortunately a thing of the past.

What drugs are currently available?

Today, we can choose from 5 different substance groups, all of which block virus replication in different ways. The basis for almost every antiretroviral therapy is still the oldest substance in use, the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), which prevents the "reverse transcription" of the "viral language" (RNA) into the human "hereditary language" (DNA). In order to keep the number of tablets as low as possible, two of these substances are usually administered in the form of a combination tablet.

In addition, a third substance belongs to the group of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (similar to the NRTI), protease inhibitors (block the protein maturation of HIV), integrase inhibitors (prevent the integration of HIV into the nucleus of the human cell) or CCR5 blockers (impede the docking of HIV to the human cell). Modern antiretroviral therapy today usually consists of only 1 to a maximum of 5 tablets per day.

What will change in my life?

The most important first step after the diagnosis is to accept the HIV infection. For many people a world collapses in the first moment.

One should be aware, however, that there are much more dangerous diseases that reduce life expectancy. In this phase, the support of an experienced psychologist is very helpful in addition to the support of good friends. From a medical point of view, not much will really change as a rule.

The immune system is usually not restricted in this period, which means that there is no increased risk of infection with infectious diseases. Only regular laboratory checks of the immune system (CD4 helper cells) and the virus concentration (viral load) every 3 months are necessary.

When should I start antiretroviral therapy (ART)?

As mentioned above, not all HIV infections are treated equally. The European AIDS Society recommends starting antiretroviral therapy in 3 cases:

  1. in the presence of AIDS, an immunodeficiency disease (i.e. the occurrence of so-called AIDS-defining diseases), or
  2. if the CD4 helper cells fall below the critical limit of 350 cells/µl, or
  3. if the CD4 helper cells drop below 500 cells/µl and other indicators are present simultaneously (hepatitis B or C, age from 50 years, rapid drop in CD4 helper cells)

Who should I tell about my HIV infection?

From a legal point of view, the obligation to inform other people about HIV infection exists only in relation to the respective (sexual) partner. Often it is also very supportive to initiate a very close person, such as close friends or family members. Employers or colleagues do not need to be informed.

Doctors only need to be informed insofar as it is necessary for the respective diagnosis and therapy (clarification or treatment of special illnesses related to HIV infection) or for their own protection against infection (contact with blood, dental treatment, surgical interventions).

Has HIV infection become "harmless" in the meantime?

No! HIV infection is still an incurable infectious disease that leads to death if left untreated. For this reason, a timely therapy is life-saving, but this requires a timely diagnosis. For this reason every person who has a potential risk of HIV infection should regularly undergo an HIV test!


National Institute of Health

  • offers access to the latest, federally approved HIV/AIDS medical practice guidelines, HIV treatment and prevention clinical trials, and other research information.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

  • The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services maintains a library of resources for HIV prevention and treatment.


University of California San Francisco Health

  • University of California San Francisco Health is internationally renowned for providing highly specialized and innovative care for patients with HIV/AIDS.
  • (2020). Just Diagnosed: Next Steps After Testing Positive for HIV. Retrieved August 2021
  • Everyday Health. (2019). The Top 10 Questions About HIV, Answered. Retrieved August 2021
  • Healthgrades. (2021). 5 Top Questions for Newly Diagnosed HIV Patients. Retrieved August 2021
  • WebMD. (2020). Questions to Ask Your Doctor About HIV/AIDS. Retrieved August 2021
  • WebMD. (2020). What to Do After Being Diagnosed as HIV-Positive. Retrieved August 2021
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). HIV Testing. Retrieved August 2021
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021). Newly Diagnosed with HIV. Retrieved August 2021
  • (2017). What to Expect at Your First HIV Care Visit. Retrieved August 2021
  • Avert. (2019). What Happens After an HIV Test and Getting the Results? Retrieved August 2021
  • University of California San Francisco Health. (n.d.). HIV Diagnosis. Retrieved August 2021

Written by Mark Riegel, MD

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